Allgemeine Darstellungen zur Demokratiebewegung

Amnesty International (Ed.): Political Imprisonment in the People’s Republic of China. Amnesty International Publications. London 1978  

Amnesty International (Ed.): Menschenrechtsverletzungen in der Volksrepublik China (Human rights violations in China). Köln 1984  

Ben kan she 本刊摄: 1979 "Si Wu" de Tian'anmen Guangchang 1979"四五"的天安门广场 (Our own photos: Tiananmen Square on "April 5th" 1979). In: Zhengming 爭鳴 (Hong Kong), no. 19, May 1979, pp. 34-35

Bin Yang: "We want to go home!". The Great Petition of the Zhiqing, Xishuangbanna, Yunnan, 1978-1979. In: China Quarterly no. 198, Cambridge University Press, June 2009, pp. 401-421

Black, George; Munro, Robin: Black Hands of Beijing. Lives of Defiance in China’s Democracy Movement. John Wiley & Sons. New York NY e.a. 1993  

Brodsgaard, Kjeld Erik: The Democracy Movement in China, 1978-1979: Opposition Movements, Wall Poster Campaigns, and Underground Journals. In: Asian Survey (University of California Press), Vol. 21, No. 7 (Jul., 1981), pp. 747-774, retrieved 05.05.2010 

Butterfield, Fox: China. Alive in the Bitter Sea. Hodder and Stoughton. London u.a. 1982  

Chen, Ruoxi: Democracy wall and the unofficial journals. Center for Chinese Studies, Inst. of East Asian Studies, Univ. of California. Berkeley, CA 1982  

Chen Yan 陈彦: "Minzhuqiang" yundong ji qi lishi diwei "民主墙运动"及其历史地位 (The "Democracy Wall Movement" and it’s place in history). In: Modern China Studies (Univ. of California), Issue 2, 2006, retrieved 4.2.2014  

Chen Ziming 陈子明: Wen ji 4 Minzhu Yundong zai Zhongguo 文集4.民主运动在中国 (Collected writings 4. The Democracy Movement in China). Shijie Huawen Chuban Jigou 世界华文出版机构. Hong Kong 2010  

Cheng Zhongyuan 程中原, Li Zhenghua 李正华, Wang Yuxiang 王玉祥: Zhuanzhe niandai: 1976-1981 de Zhongguo 转折年代:1976-1981年的中国 (Pivotal Years: China 1976-1981). Zhongyang Wenxian Chubanshe 中央文献出版社 (Central Documents Publishing House). Beijing 2008. Download from Baidu, retrieved 01.11.2017. [There is another slightly different version of the same book, containing more names of persons quoted - it's status and publishing details remain to be confirmed, maybe an earlier or an "internal"/pre-censorship printing.]

Christiansen, Flemming; Posborg, Susanne; Wedell-Wedellsborg, Anne: Die demokratische Bewegung in China, Revolution im Sozialismus? Simon und Magiera. München 1981  

Christiansen, Flemming e.a.: Den demokratiske bevægelse i Kina. Kommenterede texter fra den kinesiske undergrundsbevægelse (The democracy movement in China. Annotated texts from the Chinese underground movement). Hans Reitzel. Copenhagen 1980  

Chubb, Andrew: Foreign Correspondents & Democracy Wall: The impact of the Western media in China, 1978-1979. Honours thesis, School of Social and Cultural Studies, The University of Western Australia. Perth 2010; uploaded by Scribd Inc., San Francisco CA (retrieved 26.10.2017)

Deng Yushuo 邓宇硕 (Ed.): Sirenbang hou de Zhongguo 四人帮后的中国 (China after the Gang of Four). Cosmos Books/天地图书出版. Hong Kong 2008  

Ding Dong 丁東, Xing Xiaoqun 邢小群 (Eds.): Bashi niandai de Zhongguo gaige yaozhe neimu - qinlizhe koushu shilu 八十年代中國政改夭折內幕 -- 親歷者口述實錄 (How China's political reforms of the 80s came to an early end - Recordings of eye-witness accounts). Dashan Wenhua Chubanshe 大山文化出版社/Great Mountain Culture. Hong Kong 2015 (The interviews were made from 2008-2009.)

Ding, X. L.: The Decline of Communism in China. Legitimacy Crisis, 1977–1989. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge 1994  

Fewsmith, Joseph: Dilemmas of Reform in China. Political Conflict and Economic Debate (Socialism & Social Movements). East Gate Books. M. E. Sharpe. New York, NY 1994  

Garside, Roger: Coming Alive. China after Mao. Mentor. New York, NY 1982  

Goldman, Merle: Sowing the Seeds of Democracy in China. Political Reform in the Deng Xiaoping Era. Harvard Univ. Press, Cambridge, MA e.a. 1994  

Goldman, Merle; MacFarquhar, Roderick (Eds.): The Paradox of China's Post-Mao Reforms. Harvard Contemporary China Series. Harvard University Press. Harvard, MA 1999  

Goldman, Merle: From Comrade to Citizen. The Struggle for Political Rights in China. Harvard University Press. Cambridge, MA, und London 2007  

Goodman, David S. G.: Beijing Street Voices. The Poetry and Politics of China's Democracy Movement. Marion Boyars, London, Boston, MA 1981  

Holtzman, Marie; Debord, Bernard: Wei Jingsheng, un chinois inflexible. Blei de Chine, (France) 2005  

Hong Xin 宏欣: Beijing de minban kanwu 北京的民办刊物 (People's journals of Beijing). In: Zhengming 爭鳴 (Hong Kong), no. 19, May 1979, pp. 28-32

Hu Jiwei 胡绩伟: Hu Yaobang yu Xidan Minzhuqiang 胡耀邦与西单民主墙 (Hu Yaobang and the Xidan Democracy Wall). In: (USA), 22.4.2004, retrieved 4.2.2014. Translation into English by Andrew Chubb: Hu Yaobang and the Xidan Democracy Wall. In: Danwei Chinese media, advertising, and urban life. Posted on February 9, 2011 (retrieved 26.10.2017) 

Hua Rong 华荣: Beijing dixia kanwu - "Jintian" 北京地下刊物 --《今天》(Beijing's underground journal - "Today"). In: Dongxiang 動向, Hong Kong, April 1979, pp. 32-34

Huang San e.a. (Eds.): Un bol de nids d’hirondelles ne fait pas le printemps de Pékin (One bowl of bird's nest soup does not make a Beijing Spring). Christian Bourgois Editeur. Paris 1980  

Jiang Li 江莉: Zhonggong zhengshi renquan wenti 中共正视人权问题 (China's communists facing the human rights issue). In: Dongxiang 動向, nr. 14, Hong Kong, November 1979, pp. 15-19

Kosta, Jiří: Von Kronstadt bis Beijing. Das Aufbegehren der Menschen im "realen Sozialismus" (From Kronstadt to Beijing. The rebellion of people under "real socialism"). In: Menzel, Ulrich (Ed.): Nachdenken über China (Reflections on China). Suhrkamp (Germany) 1990  

Lei Guang: Elusive Democracy: Conceptual Change and the Chinese Democracy Movement, 1978-79 to 1989. In: Modern China, Vol. 22, No. 4 (Oct., 1996), pp. 417-447, retrieved 26.10.2017)

Lei Ming 雷鸣: Jiuyi renmin yuanwang de biaolu 九亿人民的表露 (Revealing the desires of 900 million). In: Dongxiang 動向, Hong Kong, April 1979, pp. 25-26

Levine, Jill: Deng Xiaoping, Dazibao and Dissent: A Critical Analysis of the Xidan Democracy Wall Movement. BA Thesis. Vassar College, Poughkeepsie NY, 2013 (Senior Capstone Projects 163). Retrieved 30.10.2017

Li Ling 李凌: Zhuiyi Xidan "Minzhuqiang" dansheng shi mo 追忆西单民主墙诞生始末(Recollecting the origins and final days of the Xidan Democracy Wall). (Peking), 10.2.2012, retrieved 22.10.2015

Liu Shengji 劉勝驥: Beijing zhi chun 北京之春 1978-1979 (Beijing Spring 1978-1979); Zhongguo Dalu yanjiu congshu 中國大陸硏究叢書 (Chinese Mainland Research Series); Youshi wenhua shiye gongsi 幼獅文化事業公, Taipei 1984

Liu Shengji 劉勝驥: Dalu minban kanwu xingshi he neirong fenxi 大陸民辦刊物的形式和内容分析 1978-1980, Underground periodicals in Mainland China 1978-1980; Liuxue Chubanshe 留學出版社, Taipei 1984

Liu Shengji 劉勝驥: Zhongguo Dalu dixia kanwu yanjiu 1978-1982 中國大陸地下刊物研究 1978-1982, Taiwan Shangwu Yinshuguan 臺灣商務印書館,Taipei 1985

Mnouchkine, Ariane e.a.: Der Prozeß gegen den Schriftsteller Wei Jingsheng (The process against the writer Wei Jingsheng). Rowohlt Taschenbuch. Reinbek bei Hamburg 1986  

Nathan, Andrew James: Chinese Democracy. Knopf. New York, NY 1985  

Opletal, Helmut: Entretien avec Xu Wenli, rédacteur en chef de Tribune du 5 avril (Interview with Xu Weli, editor-in-chief of the 5th April Tribune). In: Paris-Pékin, No. 1, Paris 1979 (pp. 18-21)

Paltemaa, Lauri: The Democracy Wall Movement and the Variations of Socialist Democracy (draft/conference paper). Helsinki, 7.-9. June 2005, retrieved 15.10.2015  

Paltemaa, Lauri: In the vanguard of history: The Beijing Democracy Wall Movement 1978-1981 and Social Mobilisation of Former Red Guard Dissent. Turun Yliopisto, Turku 2005  

Seymour, James D. (Ed.): The fifth modernization: China's human rights movement, 1978-1979. Human Rights Publ. Group. Stanfordville, NY 1980

Shao Jiang [邵江]: Citizen Publications in China Before the Internet. Palgrave Macmillan US. 2015

Shao Jiang [邵江]: Minkan in China: 1949-89. PhD thesis, University of Westminster. London 2011, electronic version retrieved 13.11.2018

Shen Yuan 申渊: Cong Minzhuqiang dao liaotianjiao 从民主墙到聊天角 (From the Democracy Wall to the Speaker’s Corner). Originally in: Zhengming 争鸣, Hong Kong, retrieved 4.2.2014, now quoted from Google Groups, retrieved 22.10.2015)  

Shi Jianfang: Deng Xiaoping ti "sige jiben yuanzi" Hu Yaobang wei mingque biaoshi zhichi 邓小平提四个基本原子胡耀邦未明确表示支持 (Hu Yaobang has never clearly supported the "Four Basic Principles" raised by Deng Xiaoping). In: Dongfang Zaobao 东方早报 (Shanghai), 29.3.2013 (quoted from:, retrieved 22.10.2015  

Sidane, Victor (Ed.) [Peyraube, Alain; Bellefroid, Emmanuel; Bonnin, Michel]: Le printemps de Pékin, oppositions démocratiques en Chine, novembre 1978-mars 1980 (The Beijing Spring, democratic opposition in China, november 1978-march 1980). Collection Archives. Paris 1980  

Sidane, Victor [Peyraube, Alain; Bellefroid, Emmanuel; Bonnin, Michel] / Zafanolli, Wojtek: Procès politiques à Pékin (Political processes in Beijing). François Maspero. Paris 1981  

Tang Yingwu 汤应武: Jueze. 1978 nian yilai Zhongguo gaige de lishi  抉择.1978年以来中国改革的历程 (A difficult choice. The path of China’s reform since 1978). Economic Daily Publishing House/Jingji Ribao Chubanshe 经济日报出版社. Beijing 1998  

Tang Yingwu 汤应武: Gaige kaifang 30 nian zhongda jueze jishi 改革开放30年重大决策纪实 (30 years of important decisions during reform and opening). Zhong-gong Zhongyang Dangxiao Chubanshe 中共中央党校出版社 (CCP Central Party School Publishing House). Beijing 2008 (two volumes)  

Xia Yan 夏燕: Zhongnanhai hongqiang neibu 中南海红墙内部 (Inside the red walls of Zhongnanhai). In: Jing Bao 境報 (special supplement 附送增刊), Hong Kong, no date (probably December 1978)

Xidan Minzhuqiang shijian miwen: Hu Yaobang fandui daibu Wei Jingsheng 西单民主墙事件秘闻:胡耀邦反对逮捕魏京生 (A secret from an incident at the Xidan Democracy Wall: Hu Yaobang opposed the arrest of Wei Jingsheng). Quoted from: 多维新闻 (USA), 24.11.2015, retrieved 8.11.2017

Xidan Minzhuqiang: Ye Jianying, Hu Yaobang yu Deng Xiaoping de Fenqi 西单民主墙:叶剑英胡耀邦与邓小平的分歧 (The Xidan Democracy Wall: Differences between Ye Jianying, Hu Yaobang and Deng Xiaoping). Quoted from: 多维新闻 (USA), 8.1.2016, retrieved 8.11.2017

Xu Xing 许行: 北京民主运动的热潮和寒流 Beijing Minzhu Yundong de rechao he hanliu (Hot and cold for the Beijing Democracy Movement). In: Observer/Guanchajia 观察家, Nr. 16, Hong Kong, February 1979, pp. 4-8  

Yang Jisheng 杨继绳: Deng Xiaoping shidai 邓小平时代 (The era of Deng Xiaoping). Zhongyang  Bianyi Chubanshe 中央编译出版社. Peking 1998  

Yang Jisheng 杨继绳: Zhongguo gaige niandai de zhengzhi douzheng 中国改革年代的政治斗争 (Political struggles during China’s reform era). Excellent Culture Press/香港卓越文化出版社. Hong Kong 2004  

Yang Jisheng 杨继绳: Zhongguo gaige niandai de zhengzhi douzheng 中国改革年代的政治斗争 (Political struggles during China’s reform era). Cosmos Books/天地图书出版. Hong Kong 2013  

Yao Li 姚力: Lilun Gongzuo Wuxihui yanjiu shuping 理论工作务虚会研究述评 (Review of studies in the Forum on Theoretical Work). In: HPRC (The History of the People's Republic of China 中华人民共和国国史网). Beijing, 28.10.2016, retrieved 9.11.2017

Yin Hongbiao 印紅標: Shizongzhe de zuji. Wenhua Da Geming qijian de qingnian sichao 失蹤者的足跡。文化大革命期間的青年思潮 (Footprints of the missing ones. Ideas from the youth during the Great Cultural Revolution). Chinese University Press/中文大學出版社 Hong Kong 2009  

Ying Zi 瑩子: Tamen weishenmo chongshang xifang minzhu - Zhongguo nianjing yi dai de ji zhong sixiang qingxiang 他们为什么崇尚西方民主--中国年经一代的几种思想倾向 (Why they advocate Western democracy - some trends in the thinking of China's young generation). In: Dongxiang 動向, Hong Kong, April 1979, pp. 27-31

Zhonggong Zhongyang Dangshi Yanjiushi (中共中央党史研究室 Research Unit on Party History of the CCP Central Committee): Zhongguo Gongchandang xin shiqi lishi dashi ji 1978.12-1998.10 (中国共产党新时期历史大事记 Important events in the new historical era of the CCP). Zhonggong Dangshi Chubanshe 中共党史出版社/CCP History Publishing House). Beijing 1998  

Zhu Jiaming 朱嘉明: Zhongguo gaige de qilu 中国改革的歧路 (Wrong turns for reforms in China). Lianjing Chuban Gonsi 聯經出版公司. Taipei 2013